Urology is a branch of medical and surgical specialty that deals with disorders of the genito-urinary tract, ie the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate and male external genitalia. The urinary tract consists of: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
The kidneys are deputies to the production of urine. Urine is the liquid produced by the filtration of blood by the kidneys (two organs located in the lumbar region, classically described as a form of “bean”), which purify the toxic substances and waste metabolism (conversion of food into nutrient assimilation). The urine is then collected in the renal pelvis (or renal pelvis). From each side the renal pelvis ureter, a tubular pipe that serves to merge the urine to the bladder (a hollow organ located in the pelvis). From there, the urine reaches the outside through a duct called urethra.
In humans, the initial part of the urethra runs through the prostate (a gland at the base of the bladder and whose secretions contribute to form semen).
For the people of the male sex should be carried out a series of periodic testing different depending on the age of the patient:
- at birth, the neonatologist and pediatrician should ensure that the seat of the testicles and scrotum and the mouth of the urethral meatus is normally on top of the glans and not in an abnormal position (hypospadias or epispadias);
- two years of age, an examination of the region between the groin and scrotum, to detect hydrocele, hernia, undescended testes at the top;
- In children, for urinary disorders associated with this age;
- Between 80-10 years, particularly for varicoceles, most frequently to the left testicle, which could create problems of infertility;
- between 16-20 years, short frenulum, penis deflected on its main axis (griposi) and male genital anomalies;
- between 20 and 30, to evaluate andrological disorders, such as premature ejaculation;
- between 40 and 50, control of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in blood total and free, check urology prostate every 12 months, especially if you have relatives with prostate cancer, suggesting a possible genetic predisposition.
The disease is mainly engaged in urology are:
- prostate disease
- disorders of erection
- ejaculation disorders
- disease of the testes
- Andrology in the elderly
- morphological abnormalities of the penis / male genital cosmetic surgery
- disorders of gender / transsexual
- Sterility / infertility
- urogenital infections
- kidney disease
- disease of the bladder
- urinary stones patologia della prostata